effect of artificial on individual organisms and on the structure of ecosystems song as a whole. The effect that artificial has upon organisms is highly variable, and ranges from beneficial (e.g. Increased ability for predator species to observe prey) to immediately fatal.
The Swiss agency for energy efficiency (safe) uses a concept which promises to be of great use in the diagnosis and design of road lighting,.e., "consommation lectrique spcifique (CES which can be translated into English as "specific electric power consumption (SEC. In the night, the polarization of the moonlit sky is very strongly reduced in the presence of urban light pollution, because scattered urban light is not strongly polarized. For instance, light pollution can be reduced by turning off unneeded outdoor lights, and only lighting stadiums when there are people inside.